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Welcome to ENIGMA

The Space Research and Technology Group operates the HellENIc GeoMagnetic Array (ENIGMA), an array of 4 ground-based magnetometer stations in the areas of Trikala (Klokotos), Attiki (Dionysos), Lakonia (Velies) and Lasithi (Finokalia) that provides measurements for the study of geomagnetic pulsations, resulting from the solar wind - magnetosphere coupling.

Sonification of magnetospheric data, during a magnetic storm period. The data were provided by NOA's magnetometers and ENIGMA project. A collaboration with the Department of Audio and Visual Arts of the Ionion University in Corfu.

About Us

ENIGMA is the first magnetometer station array to operate in Greece, and within a few years of operation has achieved the status of a SuperMAG contributor. SuperMAG is a worldwide collaboration of organizations and national agencies, that currently operate more than 300 ground-based magnetometers. SuperMAG provides easy access to validated ground magnetic field perturbations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution, and with a common baseline removal approach. The purpose of SuperMAG is to help scientists, teachers, students, and the general public obtain easy access to measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

Scientific Info

The Earth's magnetic field is produced, to a large extent, by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer-core. It is also contributed to by magnetised rocks in the Earth's crust, electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced in the Earth mantle by time-varying external fields.

ENIGMA monitors the variations of the geomagnetic field associated with the occurrence of geospace magnetic storms and magnetospheric ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves. One of the ENIGMA main research objectives is the study of space weather effects on the ground, i.e., Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC).

GIC flow along electric power-transmission systems and other electrically-conducting infrastructure during increased geomagnetic activity and can cause wide-spread blackouts and power failures. GIC levels are primarily driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. These disturbances result in ground-level time varying magnetic fields, which, when they reach high levels, produce GICs (see also USGS).

ENIGMA Stations

Ground-based magnetometers have proven to be the workhorse of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling physics. Ground magnetometers enable effective remote sensing of geospace dynamics and therefore their importance in space weather monitoring and research is indisputable.

Station Locations

Click here to see the ENIGMA geomagnetic observatories.

  • Station code: THL
  • Location: Klokotos
  • Latitude: 39.5646°N
  • Longitude: 22.0144°E
  • Altitude: 86 m
  • Station code: DION
  • Location: Dionysos
  • Latitude: 38.0779°N
  • Longitude: 23.9331°E
  • Altitude: 460 m
  • Station code: VLI
  • Location: Velies
  • Latitude: 36.7180°N
  • Longitude: 22.9468°E
  • Altitude: 220 m
  • Station code: FIN
  • Location: Finokalia
  • Latitude: 35.3333°N
  • Longitude: 25.6666°E
  • Altitude: 250 m

ENIGMA Instrumentation

  • THL: GEOMAG-02 magnetotelluric station (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
  • DION: GEOMAG-02M fluxgate magnetometer (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
  • VLI: GEOMAG-02 magnetotelluric station (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
  • FIN: GEOMAG-02 magnetotelluric station (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
  • dIdD Magnetic Observatory System SB2 with GSM-90F5D (GEM Systems, Canada)
  • GSM-90F1 v7.0 Overhauser magnetometer (GEM Systems, Canada)


  • 2 x Observatory variometer CTU-Vario (Chech Technical University in Prague)
  • D/I theodolite ΤΗΕΟ 010 (MinGeo, Hungary)
  • GEOMAG-02 sensor (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
  • Ag/AgCl electrodes (GFZ Potsdam, Germany)


ENIGMA Data and Products

Latest Quick Plots



Data Coverage ?



For ENIGMA Data requests please contact Dr. G. Balasis.


Magnetograms **UNVERIFIED**

(plot duration can be set from 1 minute to 24 hours)
Date ?
From: / /
To: / /
Station Plot type Variables ?
THL    DION    VLI    FIN ΔBx    ΔBy    ΔBz


Daily ULF wavelet spectra **UNVERIFIED**

Date Station Bandwidth
/ /


For ENIGMA data request please contact with Dr. G. Balasis.

Our Team

team 1

Dr. G. Balasis

PI - Contact Point

team 3

Dr. N. Melis

Scientific Staff

team 5

Dr. O. Giannakis

Scientific Staff

team 6

Mr. C. Papadimitriou

Scientific Staff

team 4

Dr. A. Anastasiadis

Scientific Staff

team 9

Ms. Z. Boutsi

PhD Candidate

team 10

Ms. S. Mitrokotsa

PhD Candidate

team 4

Mr. G. Vasalos

IT Specialist

team 8

Mr. G. Saloustros

Technical Staff

Contact Us

Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing
National Observatory of Athens
I. Metaxa & Vas. Pavlou St., GR-15236, Penteli, Greece

Fax: (+30)-210 6148343
Tel: (+30)-210 8109185

This work was supported from the PROTEAS project within GSRT’s KRIPIS action, funded by Greece and the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union under the O.P. Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship, NSRF 2007-2013 and the Regional Operational Program of Attica.

This work was supported from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-REGPOT-2012-2013-1) under grant agreement no. 316210 (BEYOND – Building Capacity for a Centre of Excellence for EO-based monitoring of Natural Disasters).