The Earth's magnetic field is produced, to a large extent, by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer-core. It is also
contributed to by magnetised rocks in the Earth's crust, electric currents
flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents
induced in the Earth mantle by time-varying external fields.
ENIGMA monitors the variations of the geomagnetic field associated with the occurrence of geospace magnetic storms and magnetospheric ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves. One of the ENIGMA main research objectives is the study of space weather effects on the ground, i.e., Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC).
GIC flow along electric power-transmission systems and other electrically-conducting infrastructure during increased geomagnetic activity and can cause wide-spread blackouts and power failures. GIC levels are primarily driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. These disturbances result in ground-level time varying magnetic fields, which, when they reach high levels, produce GICs (see also USGS).
Ground-based magnetometers have proven to be the workhorse of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling physics. Ground magnetometers enable effective remote sensing of geospace dynamics and therefore their importance in space weather monitoring and research is indisputable.
Click here to see the ENIGMA geomagnetic observatories.
- Station code: THL
- Location: Klokotos
- Latitude: 39.5646°N
- Longitude: 22.0144°E
- Altitude: 86 m
- Station code: DION
- Location: Dionysos
- Latitude: 38.0779°N
- Longitude: 23.9331°E
- Altitude: 460 m
- Station code: VLI
- Location: Velies
- Latitude: 36.7180°N
- Longitude: 22.9468°E
- Altitude: 220 m
- Station code: FIN
- Location: Finokalia
- Latitude: 35.3333°N
- Longitude: 25.6666°E
- Altitude: 250 m
- THL: GEOMAG-02 magnetotelluric station (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
- DION: GEOMAG-02M fluxgate magnetometer (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
- VLI: GEOMAG-02 magnetotelluric station (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
- FIN: GEOMAG-02 magnetotelluric station (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
- dIdD Magnetic Observatory System SB2 with GSM-90F5D (GEM Systems, Canada)
- GSM-90F1 v7.0 Overhauser magnetometer (GEM Systems, Canada)
- 2 x Observatory variometer CTU-Vario (Chech Technical University in Prague)
- D/I theodolite ΤΗΕΟ 010 (MinGeo, Hungary)
- GEOMAG-02 sensor (GEOMAGNET, Ukraine)
- Ag/AgCl electrodes (GFZ Potsdam, Germany)